Growth differentiation factor-9 (GDF9) and bone morphogenetic protein-15 (BMP15) are oocyte-secreted factors essential for folliculogenesis. Despite known associations with reproductive pathologies, measurements of GDF9 and BMP15 as biomarkers of reproductive function have not been demonstrated. The aim of this study was to develop novel immunoassays for the detection of GDF9 and BMP15 in human peripheral blood and apply these to samples from women undergoing IVF. The immunoassays were developed in-house and validated for sensitivity, specificity and reproducibility and applied to clinical samples from women undergoing IVF. Serum samples were collected immediately before and on multiple days during FSH stimulation in antagonist treatment (100 bloods from 58 women). Serum GDF9 and BMP15 levels varied >10-fold between women, but, within an individual; were unchanged with GnRH antagonist controlled stimulation, and independent of FSH dose. GDF9 and BMP15 significantly correlated within individuals (n=58, r=0.39, p<0.01). Serum levels of GDF9, but not BMP15, positively correlated with the number of oocytes retrieved following a stimulation cycle in non-PCO(S) patients (n=39, r=0.38, p<0.05). Patients with ≥10 oocytes retrieved had 1.85-fold more GDF9 than those with <10 oocytes (p=0.05). This is the first report of the detection of serum GDF9 and BMP15 levels measured in human serum and their correlation with IVF outcome. This study demonstrates oocyte-secreted factors as potential serum biomarkers in reproductive medicine.